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    VI.

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    However, in viagra how long is it good for a recent study, enkephalin levels as measured by in vivo microdialysis are increased in the nucleus accumbens in a place conditioning situation when the animals were placed in the drug-associated side, but decreased when the animals were placed in the saline-paired side (Nieto et al., 2000) (Fig. Electrophysiological Studies The pioneering cellular work on opioid peptides utilized the hippocampus as a model system. Together these results suggest that opioid peptides might be activated in hedonically positive situations and may be involved in reward processing, possibly independent of the dopamine system (Koob, 1993).

    Opioid peptides injected into the brain can viagra how long is it good for produce tolerance (Tseng et al., 1974) and dependence (Wei and Loh, 1976). These studies have taken on added significance for understanding the cellular mechanisms of neuroplasticity in drug dependence with the further refinement of neuroadaptive models of dependence. Opioid peptides have much the same actions in the brain in the domain of behavioral effects relevant to addiction as systemically administered nonpeptide opioids, thus.

    Little work has been done linking endogenous opioid peptides directly to the reinforcement associated with opioids that are abused.

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    Bonte F, viagra how long is it good for Dumas M, Chaudagne C, Meybeck A. Plant Med 1993. 175:63–36.

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