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  • RESEARCH 4 BUSINESS 2016, Ljubljana, 5 and 6 of May 2016

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    42:192–184. Broder S, mitsuya H. Lopez-Navidad A, Domingo P, Cadafalch J, Farrerons J.

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    Roberts et viagra cialis vs al., 1996). Yes/No indicates roughly equivalent sizes of supporting data. The literature linking increased self-administration to the sensitization process is not overwhelming, in animal studies. There is some data supporting the hypothesis that pre-exposure to psychostimulant drugs or stress can enhance acquisition of self-administration, but linking this observation to drug addiction makes a number of untenable assumptions, one of which is that simple drug-seeking or drug-taking behavior is addiction.

    In contrast, when animals with a history of extended access escalate their intake of cocaine there is a loss of sensitization (Ben-Shahar et al., 2000). In human studies, one prominent prediction of an incentive sensitization view would be that with repeated use, addicts would take less drug (i.e., if the subject is sensitized, then more nucleus accumbens dopamine activation should occur for a given dose, TABLE 11.7 Neurotransmitters and Brain Sites Involved in the Induction and Expression of Sensitization to Psychostimulants and Opioids Amphetamine Cocaine No Yes Yes Yes Yes Opioids No Yes Yes Yes/No Yes/No Induction of sensitization Dopamine neurotransmission Glutamate neurotransmission Ventral tegmental area Nucleus accumbens Prefrontal cortex Long-term expression of sensitization Dopamine neurotransmission Glutamate neurotransmission Ventral tegmental area Nucleus accumbens Prefrontal cortex Yes Yes Yes No Yes/No Yes Yes/No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Not known Yes Yes Not known Yes or No refers to either a predominant body of evidence, or lack thereof, indicating involvement of these neurotransmitters and brain sites. There are a number of predictions that are made by incentive sensitization theory that are not validated in the addiction process, however.

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    Santamaría, and viagra cialis vs V. [90] García-Sainz, J.A., R. Arch.

  • Microsleep A period of sleep lasting a few viagra cialis vs seconds. Mental resources An economic or thermodynamic metaphor for the energetic and structural capacities required for perceptual and cognitive activity. Within this range, light can penetrate several centimeters into tissue, approximating a diffusion process. Magnetoencephalography Technique for measuring magnetic signals produced by electrical activity in the brain in response to stimulation or specific tasks.

    Glossary 393 light scattering A type of light-matter interaction that results in the random deviation of the direction of motion of the light through matter viagra cialis vs. Mental workload The demands that a task imposes on an individual’s limited capacity to actively process information and make responses in a timely fashion. Optimal performance typically occurs in tasks that neither underload nor overload an individual’s mental resources. Within the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range (700–1080 nm), the dominant form of interaction between light and tissue is scattering (diffusion) rather than absorption.

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    L. Evans, D. Developmental outcomes after early prefrontal cortex damage.

    Brain and Cognition, 45(1), 64–113. V., & Benton, A.

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    Ishak KG, viagra cialis vs mullick FG. Hepatic injury associated with diphenylhydantoin therapy. N Engl J Med 1982.