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MEDICAL USE AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS Medical uses of marijuana were ubiquitous for centuries in Asia, Southeast Asia, and India, and included use as an sildenafil price comparison intoxicant and tonic. In a large scale, multi-site trial, preliminary results suggested that at 5 months, approximately 20 per cent of an extended cognitive behavioral therapy combined with a motivational enhancement therapy treatment group remained abstinent compared to approximately 7 per cent of a brief treatment group and approximately 4 per cent for a delayed treatment group, suggesting some semblance of a dose response (Stephens et al., 2001. Treatment of cannabis dependence has relied almost exclusively on behavioral therapies. McRae et al., 2002).
5.4). Cognitive behavioral therapy (Stephens et al., 1995), motivational enhancement therapy (Budney et al., 1996), relapse prevention support groups (Stephens et al., 1991), social support groups, and motivational interviewing (Copeland et al., 1997) all have shown significant reductions in marijuana use compared to baseline, but no particular therapy has stood out as significantly more effective than any other (McRae et al., 2000). No pharmacotherapies have been systematically evaluated for Substance Dependence on cannabis but there is some suggestion that serotonin antidepressants and anxiolytics may have promise. Controlled clinical trials of outpatient treatment have yielded responsiveness and success rates similar to those for Substance Dependence on other drugs of abuse (McRae et al., 1999).
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[Reproduced with permission from sildenafil price comparison Breiter et al., 1998.] More recently, opponent process theory has been expanded into the domains of the neurocircuitry and neurobiology of drug addiction from a physiological perspective. An allostatic model of the brain motivational systems has been proposed to explain the persistent changes in motivation that are associated with vulnerability to relapse in addiction, and this model may generalize to other psychopathology associated with dysregulated motivational systems. All data are presented as mean + SEM percentage of baseline ICSS thresholds.
The horizontal dotted line in each plot represents 120% of baseline levels. Allostasis from the addiction perspective has been defined as the process of maintaining apparent reward NEUROADAPTATIONAL VIEWS OF ADDICTION 15 FIGURE 1.11 Rats (n = 8) were allowed to self-administer 8, 18, 30, and 50 injections of cocaine (0.22 mg per injection), and ICSS thresholds were measured 16 min and 3, 20, and 18 h after the end of each intravenous cocaine self-administration session.