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  • RESEARCH 4 BUSINESS 2016, Ljubljana, 5 and 6 of May 2016

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  • Both the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the brain stress system mediated by Neurocircuitry of the Acute Rewarding Effects of Drugs of Abuse A key element of drug addiction is how the brain reward system changes with the development of addiction, and one must understand the neurobiological bases for acute drug reward to understand how these systems change with the development of addiction generic viagra yahoo answers. Neurocircuitry of the Withdrawal/Negative Affect Stage of the Addiction Cycle The neural substrates and neuropharmacological mechanisms for the negative motivational effects of drug withdrawal may involve disruption of the same neurochemical systems and neurocircuits implicated in the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Repeated administration of psychostimulants produces an initial facilitation of dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission (Ungless et al., 1998. 2001), vorel et al.. However, chronic administration leads to decreases in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens during acute withdrawal, opposite responses of opioid receptor transduction generic viagra yahoo answers mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens during opioid withdrawal, changes in GABAergic neurotransmission during alcohol withdrawal, and differential regional changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function during nicotine withdrawal.

    Decreases in reward neurotransmitter function have been hypothesized to contribute significantly to the negative motivational state associated with acute drug abstinence and may trigger long-term biochemical changes that contribute to the clinical syndrome of protracted abstinence and vulnerability to relapse. Different neurochemical systems involved in stress modulation also may be engaged within the neurocircuitry of the brain stress systems in an attempt to overcome the chronic presence of the perturbing drug and to restore normal function despite the presence of the drug. While some have argued for a drug reward system in series with the mesolimbic dopamine system, others have argued that as one moves away from the psychostimulant drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines, the importance of dopamine diminishes, and other neurochemical systems may have drug reward functions independent of dopamine in the extended amygdala.

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