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    1997, further delineation of category specificity within the HPFC awaits more precise testing using various SEC categories as stimuli (Crozier et al..

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    TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone. ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone.

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    One hypothesis to explain the overall actions of nicotine in the ventral tegmental area is that nicotine binds to α 6 nAChRs buy generic levitra 10mg on presynaptic glutamate terminals in the ventral tegmental area (Jones and Wonnacott, 2002), and induces a long-term potentiation of excitatory glutamate transmission onto midbrain dopamine neurons. 1994.] FIGURE 6.22 reflecting depolarization with an increase in firing , [Reproduced with permission from Pidoplichko et al.. Prolonged exposure to the same concentrations of nicotine that acutely increase firing caused desensitization of the nicotinic receptors and may explain acute tolerance to nicotine’s effects , however. 1998), erhardt et al..

    However, the high affinity α 7 β 5 receptors on GABAergic neurons may desensitize quickly, resulting in a concomitant decrease of inhibitory GABA transmission onto dopamine neurons. Mansvelder et al., 2003). Also, in slice preparations, nicotine enhanced firing of dopamine and nondopamine (presumably GABAergic) neurons, but the non-dopamine neurons desensitized more rapidly, possibly contributing to a more prolonged activation of the dopamine neurons via a disinhibitory effect (Yin and French, 2001. At a local circuit level, presynaptic activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on glutamate terminals may mediate some of this activation (Mansvelder and McGehee, 1999.

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